Composition of the Court

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The judges are elected by the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe from lists of three candidates proposed by each State. They are elected for a non-renewable term of nine years.
Although judges are elected in respect of a State, they hear cases as individuals and do not represent that State. They are totally independent and cannot engage in any activity that would be incompatible with their duty of independence and impartiality.

More information

Judges of the Court

In order of precedence as at 18/04/2016

First name
Surname
Country
Precedence
Ganna Yudkivska Ukraine Judge
Born on 5 July 1973 in Kyiv, Ukraine

  • Human Rights Expert in Kyiv, 1994-2005
  • Master’s degree in law, Faculty of Law of Kyiv National University, 2003
  • Member of the Ukrainian Bar, 2003
  • Legal adviser, lawyer in Kyiv, 2000-2005
  • Lawyer in the Registry of the European Court of Human Rights, 2005-2009
  • Master 2 in Law and European Studies, specialised in human Rights in Europe, Faculty of Law of Strasbourg, 2007
  • Doctor of Philosophy in law, Academy of Advocacy of Ukraine, 2008
  • Lecturer in human rights law, Centre for International Protection, Strasbourg, 2008-2010
  • Adviser to the Commissioner for Human Rights of the Council of Europe, 2009-2010
  • Judge of the European Court of Human Rights since 15 June 2010
  • Vice-President of Section since 3 November 2015.
Helen Keller Switzerland Judge
Born on 1 June 1964 in Zurich, Switzerland

  • Doctorate in environmental law, University of Zurich, 1993
  • Master of European Law (LL.M.), College of Europe in Bruges, Belgium, 1994
  • Research Fellow at Harvard University Law School, United States of America, 1995
  • Research Fellow at the European University Institute of Florence, Italy, 1996
  • Member of the American Society of International Law since 1996
  • Legal Counsel in a law firm in Switzerland, 1996-2011
  • Visiting researcher at the Max-Planck Institute for International Law of Heidelberg, Germany, 2000
  • Professor of International Law, Constitutional Law and European Law at the University of Lucerne, 2001-2004
  • Professor of International Law, Constitutional Law and European Law at the University of Zurich, 2004-2011
  • Board Member of the International Law Commission, Swiss Section, 2008-2011
  • Member of the United Nations Human Rights Committee (HRC), 2008-2011
  • Visiting Scholar at the Centre for Advanced Studies in Oslo, Norway, 2010
  • Judge of the European Court of Human Rights since 4 October 2011.
Boštjan Zupančič Slovenia Judge
Born on 13 May 1947 in Ljubljana

  • Dipl. Jur. Degree, Faculty of Law, University of Ljubljana, 1970
  • University of Montreal, School of Criminology, 1971-72
  • Master of Law (LL.M.), Harvard Law School, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1974
  • Scientiae Juris Doctor (S.J.D.), Harvard Law School, 1981
  • Assistant Professor of Law, University of Ljubljana (1970-76) and New York Law School (1977-79)
  • Associate Professor, University of Iowa, Law School, 1980 and Fordham University, Law School, 1981
  • Distinguished Visiting Professor, 1981 and full Professor of Law, Seton Hall University, Law School, 1986
  • Full Professor of Law, Faculty of Law, University of Ljubljana, since 1988
  • First Vice-President (for academic affairs), University of Ljubljana, 1989-92
  • Judge at the Constitutional Court of Slovenia, 1993-98
  • Member and Vice-Chair of the United Nations Committee against Torture (Geneva), 1995-98
  • Judge of the European Court of Human Rights since 1 November 1998
  • President of Section from 1 November 2004 to 31 January 2008.
Khanlar Hajiyev Azerbaijan Judge
Born on 9 September 1956 in Ganja, Azerbaijan

  • Law studies at the State University of Baku, 1973-78
  • Post-graduate course, State University of Moscow, 1978-83
  • Judge and Vice-President of the Supreme Court of Azerbaijan, 1990-1992
  • President of the Supreme Court, Azerbaijan, 1993-1998
  • Doctor of Law, 2001
  • President of the Constitutional Court, Azerbaijan, 1998-2003
  • Judge of the European Court of Human Rights since 2 April 2003.
Luis López Guerra Spain Section President
Born on 15 November 1947 in Leon, Spain

  • B.A. in Law, University of Madrid, 1969
  • Master in Political Science, Michigan State University, 1975
  • Doctor of Law, University of Madrid, 1975
  • Assistant Professor of Constitutional Law, University of Madrid, 1975-1978
  • Professor of Constitutional Law, University of Extremadura (Cáceres), 1978-1995
  • Clerk at the Constitutional Court of Spain, 1982-1986
  • Judge of the Constitutional Court of Spain, 1986-1995
  • Alternative Representative and Legal Expert for the Venice Commission, 1995-2003
  • Professor of Constitutional Law, Universidad Carlos III (Madrid), 1995-2008
  • Vice-President of the General Council of the Judiciary, 1996-2001
  • Director of the Institute of Comparative Public Law, Universidad Carlos III, 2001-2003
  • Secretary of State for Justice, Ministry of Justice of Spain, 2004-2007
  • Judge of the European Court of Human Rights since 1 February 2008
  • Vice-President of Section from 1 November 2014 to 31 August 2015
  • President of Section since 1 Septembre 2015.
András Sajó Hungary Vice-President
Born on 25 March 1949 in Budapest, Hungary

  • Law degree at the ELTE Law School of Budapest, 1972
  • Various research fellow positions at the Institute for State and Law, Hungarian Academy of Sciences since 1972
  • PhD and Habilitation at the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 1977 and 1982
  • Founder and spokesperson of the Hungarian League for the Abolition of the Death Penalty, Budapest, 1988-1994
  • Legal Counsellor to the President of Hungary, 1991-1992
  • Chair of Comparative Constitutional Law, University Professor, Central European University (Budapest), 1993-2007
  • Member, American Law Institute, 1996
  • Member, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 1997
  • Recurrent Visiting Professor, Cardozo School of Law, New York, since 1990; Global Faculty, New York University Law School, since 1996
  • Board of Directors of the Open Society Justice Initiative of New York, 2001-2007
  • Judge of the European Court of Human Rights since 1 February 2008
  • Vice-President of Section from 1 January 2015 to 31 July 2015
  • President of Section since 1 August 2015
  • Vice-President of the Court since 1 November 2015.
Mirjana Lazarova Trajkovska "The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia" Section President
Born on 5 November 1963 in Strumica

  • Law studies, Faculty of Laws, Ss Cyril and Methodius, University of Skopje, 1982-1986
  • Bar exam, Ministry of Justice, Skopje, 1992
  • Master of law (LL.M.), Faculty of Law, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia, 2007
  • Doctor of law, Faculty of Law, University of Ljubljana, 2012
  • Legal Representative of the Ministry of Internal Affairs in Court proceedings, 1988
  • Member of working groups and Commissions set up by various Ministries and other State services, 1991-2003
  • Assistant Minister for Interior, heading the Department for administrative procedures, 1995-2001
  • Member of the Committee of experts on nationality at the Council of Europe, 1995-2004
  • Head of Department on Human Rights at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 2001-2003
  • Member of the Steering Committee for Human Rights at the Council of Europe (CDDH), 2001-2003
  • President of State Election Commission, 2002-2003
  • Judge of the Constitutional Court, 2003-2008
  • Member of the Venice Commission, 2004-2008
  • Judge of the European Court of Human Rights since 1 February 2008
  • President of Section since 1 November 2015.


Ledi Bianku Albania Judge
Born on 22 February 1971 in Shkodër, Albania

  • Law degree, Faculty of Law at the University of Tirana, 1989-1993
  • Law studies, Faculty of Law at the University of Trento, Italy, 1992-1993
  • Legal practice in Tirana, 1994-1998 and 1999-2006
  • Lecturer in Law (Public International Law, European Human Rights Law and European Union Law) at the University of Tirana, 1995-2007 and at the Albanian School of Magistrates, 1997-2007
  • LL.M in European Law Studies at the College of Europe in Bruges, Belgium, 1996-1997
  • Office of the OSCE Legal Counsellor in Albania, 1998-1999
  • Founder and Executive Director of the European Centre in Tirana, 1999-2006
  • Advisor ad personam to the President of the Republic, to the President of the Parliament and to Ministers of Justice and of European Affairs, 2000-2007
  • Chairman of the National Broadcasting Authority, 2006-2007
  • Member of the Venice Commission, 2006-2007
  • Judge of the European Court of Human Rights since 1 February 2008
  • Vice-President of Section since 5 January 2016.
Nona Tsotsoria Georgia Judge
Born on 13 April 1973 in Batumi, Georgia

  • MA in Law, Faculty of Law at the Tbilisi State University, 1990-1996
  • Assistant to Judge at the Constitutional Court, 1996-1999
  • Attorney, Tbilisi, 1999-2000
  • Teacher of Law, Tbilisi State University, 1999-2004
  • Legal Advisor, then Head of the Rule of Law Project, 2000-2004
  • Deputy Prosecutor General at the Prosecutor’s Office, 2004-2007
  • MA in Public Administration, University of Pennsylvania, USA, 2006-2007
  • Judge of the European Court of Human Rights since 1 February 2008.
Işıl Karakaş Turkey Vice-President
Born on 8 December 1958 in Istanbul, Turkey

  • Faculty of Political Science, Istanbul University, 1983
  • Faculty of Law, Marmara University, 1990
  • Master’s degree Public Law, Istanbul University, 1986
  • Master’s degree in European Law, “Centre européen universitaire”, Nancy II University, 1988
  • Doctor of Public Law, Istanbul University, 1992
  • European University Institute, Florence, 1990
  • Professor of International Law, Faculty of Law, Galatasaray University, 2003-2008
  • Director of the Research and Documentation Centre on Europe, Galatasaray University, 2002-2008
  • Head of Department of Public International Law, Faculty of Law, Galatasaray University, 2003-2008
  • Visiting Professor, Universities: Aix-Marseille III, Reims, Montpellier II, Strasbourg Robert Schuman
  • Vice-Dean, Faculty of Law, Galatasaray University, 2004-2008
  • Judge at the European Court of Human Rights since 1 May 2008
  • Vice-President of Section from 1 November 2013 to 31 December 2014
  • President of Section since 1 January 2015
  • Vice-President of the Court since 1 November 2015.
Nebojša Vučinić Montenegro Judge
Born on 17 October 1953 in Cetinje, Montenegro

  • Bachelor of Arts, Faculty of Law of Titograd (recently Podgorica), 1976
  • Reseach assistant, Assistant professor, Full time professor, Podgorica Law Faculty, 1976-2008
  • PhD in International Public Law and International Relations, Belgrade Law Faculty, Belgrade University, 1986
  • Member of various Expert Groups for International Legal and Political Issues, 1993-2008
  • Director of the University of Montenegro, Law Faculty Human Rights Center, 2000-2008
  • Serbia and Montenegro representative in Steering Committee for Human Rights, Council of Europe, 2004-2006
  • Member of Judicial Council of Montenegro, 2003-2007
  • Head of Department in International law and International Relations, University of Montenegro, 1994-2008
  • Judge of the European Court of Human Rights since 15 April 2008.
Kristina Pardalos San Marino Judge
Born on 14 October 1973 in New York, United States of America

  • Law Degree, University of Bologna, 1999
  • Training in law firm, 1999-2002
  • Member of the San Marino Bar, 2002
  • Member of the European Commission against Racism and Intolerance, 2004-2009
  • Member of the Parliamentary Equal Opportunities Commission, 2009
  • Judge of the European Court of Human Rights since 23 June 2009
  • Vice-President of Section from 1 September 2015 to 31 October 2015.
Guido Raimondi Italy President
Born on 22 October 1953 in Naples, Italy

  • Master’s degree in law, University of Naples, 1975
  • Assistant lecturer to the first chair of International Law in the Law Faculty of Naples, 1976-1977
  • Judge, 1977-1986
  • Seconded to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Diplomatic Legal Service, 1986-1989
  • Co-Agent for the Italian Government before the European Court and Commission of Human Rights, 1989-1997
  • Member of the Appeals Board of the Western European Union in London, 1991-1992
  • Member of various Council of Europe Steering Committees and Committees of Experts, in particular the Bureau of the Steering Committee for Human Rights, chaired 1999-2000
  • Advocate General at the Court of Cassation, 1997-2002
  • Member of the Italian Inter-ministerial Committee for Human Rights (1998-2003)
  • Full member of the Appeals Board of the Western European Union in Brussels, 1998-2000
  • Ad hoc judge of the European Court of Human Rights, 2001-2003
  • Judge of the Court of Cassation, 2002-2003
  • Deputy Legal Adviser to the International Labour Office (ILO) in Geneva, 2003-2007
  • Legal Adviser and Director of the Office of Legal Services of the ILO, 2008-2010
  • Judge of the European Court of Human Rights since 5 May 2010.
  • Vice-President of the Court and President of Section from 1 November 2012 to 31 October 2015
  • President of the Court since 1 November 2015.
Vincent A. De Gaetano Malta Judge
Born on 17 August 1952 in Sliema, Malta

  • Diploma of Notary Public, Royal University of Malta, 1974
  • Doctor of Laws, Royal University of Malta, 1975
  • Member of the Malta Bar, 1976
  • Diploma in Criminology, University of Cambridge, 1977
  • Senior Counsel for the Republic in the Attorney-General’s Office, Malta, 1979
  • Member of the ad hoc Committee of Experts on the Legal Aspects of Territorial Asylum, Refugees and Stateless Persons of the Council of Europe, 1988-1994
  • Malta’s representative on the Steering Committee on Legal Co-operation of the Council of Europe as from 1988, Vice-Chairman then Chairman, 1988-2000
  • Assistant Attorney-General, 1988 then Deputy Attorney-General, 1989-1994
  • Senior Lecturer in Criminal Law and Law of Criminal Procedure, University of Malta, 1994
  • Judge of the Superior Courts of Malta, 1994
  • Chairman of the Multidisciplinary Group on Corruption of the Council of Europe, 1995-1997
  • Chief Justice and President of the Constitutional Court, of the Court of Appeal and of the Court of Criminal Appeal of Malta, 2002-2010
  • Judge of the European Court of Human Rights since 20 September 2010
  • Vice-President of Section since 3 November 2015.
Angelika Nußberger Germany Section President
Born on 1 June 1963 in Munich, Germany

  • Studies in Slavic languages and literature, 1982-1987; studies in law, University of Munich, 1984-1989
  • Magister Artium in Slavic languages and literature, University of Munich, 1987
  • Diploma in comparative law, University of Strasbourg, 1988
  • First and Second State exam in law, Universities of Munich and Heidelberg, 1989 and 1993
  • Doctor of Law, University of Würzburg, 1993
  • Research fellow at the Max-Planck-Institute for Foreign and International Social Law, Munich, 1993-2001
  • Visiting researcher Harvard University, 1994-1995
  • Legal advisor of the General Directorate Social Cohesion of the Council of Europe, 2001-2002
  • Full professor of law and Director of the Institute for Eastern European Law, University of Cologne, 2002-2010
  • Member of the Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions and Recommendations of the International Labour Organisation, 2004-2010
  • Substitute Member of the Venice Commission of the Council of Europe, 2006-2010
  • Vice-President of the University of Cologne, 2010
  • Judge of the European Court of Human Rights since 1 January 2011
  • Vice-President of Section since 13 November 2012
  • President of Section since 1 November 2015.
Julia Laffranque Estonia Judge
Born on 25 July 1974 in Tartu, Estonia

  • Studies in law, University of Hamburg, Germany, 1994-1995
  • EU law expert, Ministry of Justice of Estonia, 1996-1999
  • Traineeship at the European Commission’s Legal Service, 1997
  • B.A. in law, University of Tartu, 1997
  • LL.M. in law, University of Münster, Germany, 1998
  • Lecturer in European law, Law Institute of Tallinn, later University of Tartu 1999-2006
  • Head of EU law Division, then EU Law and Foreign Relations Division, Ministry of Justice of Estonia, 1999-2002
  • Member of the board of the Centre for Policy Studies (PRAXIS), 2000-2004
  • Deputy Secretary General on Legislative Drafting, Ministry of Justice of Estonia, 2002-2004
  • Studies in law, European University Institute of Florence, Italy, 2002
  • Doctor iuris of law, University of Tartu, 2003
  • Justice at the Supreme Court of Estonia (member of administrative law and constitutional law chambers), 2004-2010
  • Member of the Consultative Council of European Judges (CCJE) of the Council of Europe, since 2004, Vice-President then President, 2006-2010
  • Traineeship at Federal Administrative Court of Germany, 2005
  • Judge ad hoc at the European Court of Human Rights, 2006
  • Associated professor and consequently Professor of European law, University of Tartu, 2006-2011
  • Traineeship at the Council of State, France, 2007
  • Member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration, since 2010
  • President of Estonian Association for European Law since 2004, President of International Federation for European Law (FIDE), 2010
  • Judge of the European Court of Human Rights since 4 January 2011
  • Elected “2013 European of the Year” in Estonia by the European Movement Estonia, 2013
  • Vice-President of Section since 3 November 2015.
Paulo Pinto de Albuquerque Portugal Judge
Born on 5 October 1966 in Beira, Mozambique

  • Law Degree, Faculty of Law, State University of Lisbon, 1989
  • Member of the Portuguese Bar
  • Judge in the Criminal Court and the Correctional Court of Lisbon and President of the Courts of Nelas, Lagos and the Criminal Instruction Court of Lisbon, 1992-2004
  • Master of Law, Faculty of Law, Catholic University of Lisbon, 1994
  • Doctorate of Law, Faculty of Law, Catholic University of Lisbon, 2003
  • Assistant Professor, Faculty of Law, Catholic University of Lisbon, 2004-2008
  • Member of the Ministry of Justice Taskforce for Penal Reform of the Portugal, 2005-2007
  • Invited Professor on criminal law and procedure at the High Military Studies Institute of the Ministry of Defence of Portugal, since 2007
  • Associate Professor, Faculty of Law, Catholic University of Lisbon, 2008-2010
  • Associate Professor with tenure, Faculty of Law, Catholic University of Lisbon, since 2011
  • Visiting Professor, Illinois College of Law, United States of America, 2006-2007
  • Visiting Professor, Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China, 2006
  • Adjunct Professor, Illinois College of Law, United States of America, since 2009
  • Expert of the GRECO appointed by the Council of Europe, 2009-2010
  • Judge of the European Court of Human Rights since 1 April 2011.
Linos-Alexandre Sicilianos Greece Judge
Born on 9 May 1960 in Athens, Greece

  • Law degree, University of Athens, 1983
  • Masters degree in International Law, University Robert Schuman of Strasbourg, 1984
  • Doctor of Law, University Robert Schuman of Strasbourg, 1990
  • Lawyer before the Supreme Civil and Criminal Court and the Supreme Administrative Court (on leave)
  • Professor, Faculty of Law, University of Athens
  • Member (1997-2009) and Chairman (2003-2004) of the Committee of experts of the Council of Europe for the Improvement of Procedures for the Protection of Human Rights (DH-PR)
  • Member (2002-2009), Vice-Chairman (2004-2005) and Rapporteur (2008-2009) of the United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD)
  • Member since 2000, then Vice-Chairman of the Greek National Commission for Human Rights, 2006-2011
  • Member of the European Union Network of independent experts in the field of fundamental rights, 2002-2006
  • Member of the Management Board since 2007 and member of the Executive Board of the Fundamental Rights Agency of the European Union, 2009-2011
  • Member of the Curatorium of the Hague Academy of International Law, since 2010
  • Member of the Scientific Board of the Revue trimestrielle des droits de l’homme and of the European Journal of International Law
  • Member of the Administrative Board of the European Society of International Law
  • Judge of the European Court of Human Rights since 18 May 2011.
Erik Møse Norway Judge
Born on 9 October 1950 in Oslo, Norway

  • Law degree, University of Oslo, 1976
  • Counsellor since 1977, then Head of Division, Ministry of Justice, 1981-1986
  • Participated in the drafting process of Protocols No. 6 to No. 11 of the European Convention on Human Rights, 1977-1994
  • Part-time lecturer in human rights, University of Oslo, 1981-2003
  • Chairman, Committee of Experts for the drafting of the European Convention for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, 1984-1985
  • Deputy Judge, Eiker, Modum and Sigdal, 1985-1986
  • Agent of the Government before the European Commission and the European Court of Human Rights, until 1993
  • Advocate, Attorney General’s Office (Civil Affairs) since 1986, Supreme Court Barrister, 1989-1993
  • Chairman, Steering Committee for Human Rights, Council of Europe, 1993-1994
  • Judge, Borgarting Court of Appeals, Oslo, 1993-1999
  • Fellow at the Human Rights Institute, University of Essex (UK), since 1995; honorary doctor, 2007
  • Member of the Board of the Norwegian Institute of Human Rights, 1995-1999
  • Judge (1999-2009), Vice-President (1999-2003), President (2003-2007), International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR)
  • Member of the UN Secretary-General’s Selection Panel for the appointment of judges of the Special Tribunal for Lebanon, since 2007
  • Justice, Supreme Court of Norway, 2009-2011
  • Judge of the European Court of Human Rights since 1 September 2011.
André Potocki France Judge
Born on 21 June 1950 in Lyon, France

  • Law degree at the University of Paris II, graduate of the Institute of Judicial Studies, 1973
  • Ecole Nationale de la Magistrature in Bordeaux, 1975
  • Deputy Secretary General to the first President of the Paris Appeal Court, 1979
  • Vice-President of the Senlis Regional Court, 1982
  • Secretary General to the President of the Paris Regional Court, 1984
  • Secretary General to the First President of the Paris Appeal Court, 1985
  • Secretary General to the First President of the Court of Cassation, 1988
  • Vice-President of the Paris Regional Court, 1990
  • Head of the Department of European and International Affairs in the Ministry of Justice, 1991-1994
  • Judge at the Paris Appeal Court, 1994
  • Associate professor at the University of Paris X-Nanterre in European Community Law, 1994
  • Judge at the Court of First Instance of the European Communities in Luxembourg, 1995
  • Section President at the Paris Appeal Court, commercial section, 2001
  • Vice-President of the European Commission for the Efficiency of Justice (CEPEJ) at the Council of Europe, 2002-2006
  • Judge at the Court of Cassation, 2005-2011
  • Visiting Scholar at the Law School of the University of Columbia in New-York, 2011
  • Judge of the European Court of Human Rights since 4 November 2011.
Paul Lemmens Belgium Judge
Born on 29 June 1954 in Wilrijk, Belgium

  • Degree in Law, University of Antwerp and Catholic University of Leuven (KU Leuven), 1971-1976
  • Master of Laws, Northwestern University, Chicago, United States, 1977-1978
  • Doctor in Law, Catholic University of Leuven (KU Leuven), 1987
  • Member of the Brussels bar, 1976-1984 and 1987-1994
  • Auditor at the Council of State, 1984-1987
  • Judge (1994-2005), chamber president (2005-2012), Council of State
  • Assistant, Catholic University of Leuven (KU Leuven), 1976-1986
  • Professor of human rights (since 1986), of civil procedure (1986-1995), of administrative procedure (1995-1997), of constitutional law (1997-2008), University of Leuven (KU Leuven)
  • Member of the Human Rights Advisory Panel (United Nations, Kosovo), 2007-2012
  • Judge of the European Court of Human Rights since 13 September 2012
  • Vice-President of Section from 25 August 2015 to 31 October 2015.
Helena Jäderblom Sweden Judge
Born on 16 October 1958 in Gothenburg, Sweden

  • Master of Law, University of Uppsala, 1983
  • Maritime law course, University of Oslo, Norway, 1983
  • Assistant Judge and Associate Judge at the Administrative Court of Appeal and its courts of first instance, Stockholm, 1987-1993
  • Lecturer in Constitutional and Administrative Law, Faculty of Law, University of Stockholm, 1993-1994
  • Legal Adviser and Deputy Director in the Division of Constitutional Law of the Swedish Ministry of Justice, 1994-2003
  • Member and Chairperson of the Council of Europe Group of Specialists on Access to Official Information under the Steering Committee for Human Rights (CDDH), 1998-2000, 2004-2008
  • Assignments from the Council of Europe as expert as regards legislative projects in various Member States in Central and Eastern Europe and missions as part of the Council of Europe’s activities for development and consolidation of democratic stability in Member States, 1998-2005
  • Director and Head of the Pardons Division of the Swedish Ministry of Justice, 2002-2005
  • Sweden’s representative in the Council of Europe’s Steering Committee for Legal Cooperation (CDCJ), 2002-2005
  • Senior Judge and Head of Division at the County Administrative Court, Stockholm, 2005-2007
  • Chief Judge and Head of Division at the Administrative Court of Appeal, Stockholm, 2007-2011
  • Justice of the Supreme Administrative Court, 2011-2012
  • Judge of the European Court of Human Rights since 26 September 2012
  • Vice-President of Section since 10 November 2015.
Paul Mahoney United Kingdom Judge
Born on 6 September 1946 in London, United Kingdom

  • M.A. in jurisprudence, Merton College, Oxford University, 1964-1967
  • Lecturer in law, University College London, 1967-1973
  • LL.M., University College London, 1969
  • Barrister-at-law, London, 1972-1974
  • Lawyer and senior lawyer (1974-1990), Head of Division (1993-1995) of the European Court of Human Rights
  • Associate editor, Human Rights Law Journal, 1980-2012
  • Visiting professor of human rights, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada, 1988
  • Head of Personnel in the Secretariat General of the Council of Europe, 1990-1993
  • Deputy Registrar of the European Court of Human Rights, 1995-2001
  • Member of the International Institute of Human Rights, Strasbourg, since 1996
  • Registrar of the European Court of Human Rights, 2001-2005
  • Judge and President of the European Union Civil Service Tribunal, Luxembourg, 2005-2011
  • Chairman of the Appeals Boards, European Space Agency, Paris, France, 2011-2012
  • Judge of the European Court of Human Rights since 1 November 2012.
Aleš Pejchal Czech Republic Judge
Born on 30 June 1952 in Prague, Czech Republic

  • Law degree, Faculty of Law, Charles University, Prague, 1976
  • Junior lawyer, 1976-1980
  • Juris Doctor (JUDr.), Faculty of Law, Charles University, Prague, 1978
  • Member of the Czech Bar, 1980
  • Advocate partner in a law firm, 1980-2012
  • Lecturer in constitutional and civil law at the Academy of Performing Arts, Prague, 1995-1997
  • Member of the Control Council of the Czech Bar Association, 2002-2005
  • President of the Private Law Section of the Czech Bar Association, 2002-2009
  • Member of the Consultative Advisory Body of the President of the Czech Republic for the areas of law and legislation, 2003-2012
  • Member of the Board of Directors of the Czech Bar Association, 2005-2012
  • Arbitrator at the Arbitration Court attached to the Economic Chamber of the Czech Republic and Agricultural Chamber of the Czech Republic, 2007-2012
  • Member of the Multi-jurisdictional Law Firms Committee of the Council of Bars and Law Societies of Europe (CCBE), 2007-2012
  • President of the Study and Legislative Collegium of the Czech Bar Association, 2009-2012
  • Vice-President of the Czech Bar Association, 2009-2012
  • Member of the Human Rights Committee of the CCBE, 2009-2012
  • Member of the Legislative Council of the Government of the Czech Republic, 2011-2012
  • Judge of the European Court of Human Rights since 1 November 2012.
Krzysztof Wojtyczek Poland Judge
Born on 19 February 1968 in Kraków, Poland

  • Master in Law, Jagiellonian University, Kraków, 1991
  • Junior lecturer, Faculty of Law and Administration, Jagiellonian University, Kraków, 1991-1999
  • Doctorate in law, Jagiellonian University, Kraków, 1998
  • Legal advisor (1998-2009), Senior legal advisor (2009-2012) of the Constitutional Court
  • Lecturer, Faculty of Law and Administration, Jagiellonian University, Kraków, 1999-2010
  • Director of the School of French law, Jagiellonian University, Kraków, 2000-2012
  • Member of the European Scientific Council (European Group of Public Law), since 2006
  • Habilitation in law, Jagiellonian University, Kraków, 2009
  • Member of a Committee of experts appointed by the President of the first house of the Parliament (Sejm) for the preparation of a draft of a new chapter of the Polish Constitution on the European Union membership, 2009-2010
  • Professor at the Jagiellonian University, Kraków, since 2010
  • Director of the Coordination Centre for Foreign Law Schools, 2010-2012
  • Associate member of the International Academy of Comparative Law, since 2012
  • Judge of the European Court of Human Rights since 1 November 2012.
Johannes Silvis Netherlands Judge
Born on 14 November 1953 in Winschoten, the Netherlands

  • Bachelor-degree in Law studies, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, 1977
  • Doctoral/master degree in Law, specialisations in Penal Law and Constitutional Law, 1979
  • Lecturer, Faculty of Law, University of Utrecht, 1980-1993
  • Member of the Law Faculty Council, University of Utrecht, 1984-1988
  • Member of the University Council and member of the Presidium in the University of Utrecht, 1989-1991
  • Member of the Advisory Board of the Journal of Law and Society, 1991-1993
  • Honorary Judge in the District Court of Utrecht, 1991-1994
  • Judge (1994-1998), Investigating judge (1997), Vice-President (1998-2001) of the District Court of Rotterdam
  • Lecturer for Lawyers and other Higher Legal professionals, 1998-2004
  • Lecturer at the School for Magistrates, 2001-2005
  • Judge (2001-2003, 2005), Vice-President (2005-2010) of the High Court of Appeal (Gerechtshof) of The Hague; Chairman of the Penal Section and Member of the Board of Directors of this Court, 2006-2010
  • Counsellor and Chairman of the Committee on Criminal Procedure and Legislation in the Ministry of Justice, Directorate Legislation, 2003-2005
  • Chairman of the European Union Council Working Group on Penal Cooperation in the European Union during the Dutch Presidency, 2004
  • Chairman of the Scientific Committee of the Dutch Union of Magistrates, 2011-2012
  • Advocate-General at the Supreme Court of the Netherlands, 2010-2012
  • Judge of the European Court of Human Rights since 1 November 2012.
Valeriu Griţco Republic of Moldova Judge
Born on 22 February 1959 in Mîndîc, Donduseni district, Republic of Moldova
  • Law Degree, Faculty of Law, State University, 1975-1980
  • Lecturer in Civil and Civil Procedure Law, State University, 1980-1983 and 1986-1987
  • Doctorate in Law and post-graduate studies, All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Soviet Legislation of the USSR Ministry of Justice, Moscow, Russian Federation, 1983-1986
  • District Judge, Chisinau, 1987-1991
  • Lawyer, member of the Bar Association of the Republic of Moldova (since 1991), member of the Board of the Bar Association (since 2003)
  • Legal advisor of many national and foreign banks and companies (1995-2011)
  • Chairman of the Qualification Commission (1999-2003), Vice-President of the Bar Association (2003-2007)
  • Member of the Scientific Advisory Board of the Supreme Court of Justice of the Republic of Moldova, since 2005
  • Judge of the European Court of Human Rights since 3 December 2012.
Ksenija Turković Croatia Judge

Born on 13 February 1964 in Zagreb, Croatia

  • Dipl. Jur. Degree (J.D.), Faculty of Law, University of Zagreb, 1987
  • Master of Law (LL.M.), Yale Law School, New Haven, CT, USA, 1989
  • Doctor of Juristic Science (J.S.D.), Yale Law School, New Haven, CT, USA, 1996
  • Member of the New York State Bar, NY, USA, 1996-2008
  • Associate in General Corporate Practice, Sullivan & Cromwell, New York, NY, USA, 1995-1996
  • Legal Counsel in a case before the ICTY, The Hague, Netherlands, Hunton & Williams, New York, NY, USA, 1998-2000
  • Visiting Scholar, Yale Law School, New Haven, CT, USA, 2002-2003
  • Full Professor of Criminal Law, Faculty of Law, University of Zagreb (Associate Dean for Academic and Student Affairs, 2005-2007; Head of Criminal Law Department, 2008-2010)
  • Vice-Rector, University of Zagreb, 2008-2012
  • Vice-president of the Committee of Experts on the Protection of Children against Sexual Exploitation and Abuse (PC-ES), Council of Europe, 2006-2007
  • Vice-president of the Group of Specialists on Child Friendly Justice (CJ-S-CH), Council of Europe, 2009-2010
  • President of the Expert Committee drafting new Croatian Criminal Code (adopted by the Croatian Parliament in 2011), Ministry of Justice, Zagreb, 2009-2011
  • President of the Board, Croatian Centre for Human Rights (an independent national human rights institution), Zagreb, 2007-2012
  • Observing Member of the Management Board of the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights, 2010-2012
  • Judge of the European Court of Human Rights since 2 January 2013.
Dmitry Dedov Russian Federation Judge

Born on 22 February 1967, in the city of Novograd-Volynskiy, Zhitomir oblast, USSR

  • Studies in law, Moscow State University, Law school, 1984-1991
  • PhD, Moscow State University, Law school, 1994
  • Expert at the Russian Constitutional Court and the Russian Government, 2000-2005
  • Docent and Professor, Moscow State University, 2004-2010
  • Head of the Legislation department, Russian Supreme Commercial Court, 2005-2008
  • Doctor of law, 2006
  • Judge, Russian Supreme Commercial Court, 2008-2012
  • Professor, Center for Transnational Legal Studies, London, 2010
  • Judge of the European Court of Human Rights since 2 January 2013. 
Faris Vehabović Bosnia and Herzegovina Judge
Born on 23 May 1967 in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Law Degree, Faculty of Law, University of Sarajevo, 1987-1993
  • Trainee, European Commission of Human Rights, 1998
  • Legal expert, Office of the Ombudsperson for Human Rights, 1996-2000
  • Bar Exam, 2001
  • Registrar, Constitutional Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2001-2007
  • Master Degree in European Studies, Interdisciplinary Postgraduate Studies in European Studies, University of Bologna and University of Sarajevo, 2003-2005
  • Judge (2007-2012), Vice-President (2008-2012), Constitutional Court of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Member of Association of Judges of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Lecturer, Centres for Education of Judges and Prosecutors of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republika Srpska
  • Member of the Board, Center for human Rights, University of Sarajevo
  • Ad hoc Judge, European Court of Human Rights, 2010-2012
  • Judge of the European Court of Human Rights since 3 December 2012.
Egidijus Kūris Lithuania Judge

Born on 26 October 1961, in Vilnius, Lithuania

  • M.A. in law, Vilnius University, 1984
  • PhD in law, Moscow State University, 1988
  • Habilitation, Vilnius University, 2008
  • Assistant lecturer (1984-1985, 1988-1991), Senior Lecturer (1991-1992), Associate professor (1992-1994), Professor and Head (2008-2009), Department of Theory and History of State and Law; Professor and Head (2009-2013), Department of Public Law, Faculty of Law, Vilnius University
  • Advisor, State Re-Establishment Committee, Supreme Council of the Republic of Lithuania, 1990-1991
  • Member, legal professionals’ group for drafting the Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania, 1992
  • Associate Professor (1992-2002), Professor (2002-2013) and Director (1992-1999), Institute of International Relations and Political Science, Vilnius University
  • Assistant to the President, Constitutional Court of Lithuania, 1993-1997
  • President, Lithuanian Political Science Association, 1995-1998
  • Justice (1999-2008) and President (2002-2008), Constitutional Court of Lithuania
  • President (as president of the constitutional court presiding at the Conference), Conference of the European Constitutional Courts, 2005-2008
  • President of the Council, Mykolas Romeris University, Vilnius, 2005-2009
  • Associate Member, International Academy of Comparative Law, since 2012
  • Member, Permanent Commission for the Assessment of Activities of Judges (Lithuania), 2012-2013
  • Member, Advisory Board, Ministry of Health (Lithuania), 2013
  • External Advisor to the Minister of Justice (Lithuania), 2013
  • Judge of the European Court of Human Rights since 1 November 2013.
Robert Spano Iceland Judge

Born on 27 August 1972, in Reykjavik, Iceland

  • Cand. jur. degree in Law (combined BA and Masters Degrees), Faculty of Law, University of Iceland 1997
  • Mag. jur. degree in European and Comparative Law, University of Oxford (University College) 2000, Clifford Chance Prize (proxime accessit), Civil Procedure Prize
  • Deputy District Court Judge, 1997-1998
  • Legal Adviser to the Parliamentary Ombudsman, 1998-2001
  • Adjunct Professor of Law, Faculty of Law, University of Iceland, 2000-2002
  • Assistant Professor of Law, Faculty of Law, University of Iceland, 2002-2004
  • District Court Judge, 2004
  • Deputy to the Parliamentary Ombudsman, 2001-2004
  • Member of the Board, Human Rights Institute, University of Iceland, 2005-2013
  • Chairman of the Standing Committee of Experts on Criminal Law, Ministry of Justice, 2003-2008 and 2011-2013
  • Associate Professor of Law, Faculty of Law, University of Iceland, (tenure) 2004-2006
  • Editor of the Law Review, Lawyers' Association of Iceland, 2005-2013
  • Professor of Public Law, Criminal Procedure and Jurisprudence, Faculty of Law, University of Iceland, (tenure) 2006
  • Chairman of a Commission of Experts appointed by the Prime Minister of Iceland to investigate human rights abuses from 1947-1992 in child care institutions run by the state and municipal governments, 2007-2012
  • Chairman of a Commission of Experts elected by the Assembly of the National Church of Iceland to investigate allegations of sexual abuse by the former Bishop of Iceland, 2010-2011
  • Vice-Dean of the Faculty of Law, University of Iceland, 2007-2010
  • Dean of the Faculty of Law, University of Iceland, 2010-2013
  • Member of the Judicial Supervisory Board, 2011-2013
  • Independent Expert to the Lanzarote Committee of the Council of Europe, 2012
  • Icelandic Member of the European Committee on Crime Problems (CDCP), 2012-2013
  • Ad hoc Judge, EFTA Court, 2012-2013
  • Parliamentary Ombudsman of Iceland (provisional appointment and ad hoc), 2009-2013
  • Judge of the European Court of Human Rights since 1 November 2013.
Iulia Antoanella Motoc Romania Judge

Born on 20 August 1967, in Timişoara, Romania

  • L.L.B., University of Bucharest, School of Law, 1989
  • Master in International Public Law, University Aix-Marseilles III, 1991
  • S.J.D. in International Public Law, University Aix-Marseilles III, 1996
  • Habilitation in Law, University Paris XI, 1998
  • Ph.D. in Philosophy, University of Bucharest, Department of Philosophy, 1999
  • Senior “Jean Monnet” Fellow, New York University, School of Law, 2003-2004
  • Senior Fellow, Yale University, School of Law, Orville Centre for International Human Rights, 2004-2007
  • Trainee Prosecutor, Giurgiu Regional Prosecution Office, 1989-1990
  • Judge, Trial Court of the 2nd District of Bucharest, 1990-1995
  • Lawyer, Bucharest Bar Association, 1995-2013
  • Teaching Assistant (1995-1997), lecturer (1997-1998), reader (1998-2002), professor of International Law and Human Rights (2002-2013) and European Law (2007-2013), University of Bucharest
  • Member of the Advisory Committee on the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities, Council of Europe, 1998-2004 and 2008-2012
  • Member (2000–2007) and President (2000-2001) of the Sub-Commission on the promotion and protection of human rights, United Nations
  • Member, Working Group on Indigenous Populations, United Nations, 2000-2004
  • Special Rapporteur of the United Nations Commission for Human Rights for the Democratic Republic of Congo, 2001-2004
  • Member, Working Group on Extreme Poverty and Human Rights, United Nations, 2003-2006
  • UN Special Rapporteur on Human Rights and the Human Genome, 2004-2007
  • Member (2006-2013), Rapporteur (2008-2010) and Vice-President (2012-2013), Human Rights Committee, United Nations
  • Member, Executive Board of the European Society of International Law, 2004-2008
  • Member of the Presidential Commission for Analysis of the Constitution, Romania, 2007-2008
  • Member of the Fundamental Rights Agency of the European Union, 2010-2012
  • Director (Romania) of the European Master on Human Rights and Democratisation, European Inter-University Centre for Human Rights and Democratisation, Venice, 2007-2013
  • Arbitrator, International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes, Washington, 2008-2013
  • Research Professor, Justice and International Law in a Global World, Institute for Research in International and European Law, Sorbonne, 2012-2013
  • Judge, Constitutional Court of Romania, 2010-2013
  • Judge of the European Court of Human Rights since 18 December 2013.
Jon Fridrik Kjølbro Denmark Judge

Born on 2 June 1967, in Gentofte, Denmark

  • Master of Law, University of Copenhagen, 1992
  • Deputy prosecutor, District Prosecutors Office (1993-1994), State Prosecutors Office (1994 and 1996-2001), Copenhagen
  • Head of section, Ministry of Justice, Civil Department (1993-1994), Law Department (European Union Law and Human Rights Division 1996-2000; Penal Law Division 2001; Human Rights Office 2001-2003)
  • Deputy Judge, District Court of Torshavn, Faroe Islands, 1994-1996
  • Co-editor of a legal magazine on European Union Law and Human Rights with responsibility for publication of summaries of leading cases from the ECHR, 2000-2010
  • Secretary to the Committee on the incorporation of human rights conventions in Danish Law, 2001
  • Ad hoc Judge, Copenhagen Eastern High Court, 2003 and 2004
  • District Court Judge, Copenhagen District Court, 2004-2005
  • High Court Judge (2005-2014), Deputy Section President (2010-2014), Copenhagen Eastern High Court
  • Vice-Chairman, Refugee Board, 2012-2014
  • Judge of the European Court of Human Rights since 1 April 2014.
Branko Lubarda Serbia Judge

Born on 15 October 1955, in Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina

  • LL.D. (1979), M.S. (1985), Dr. Sci. (1990), Law School of the University of Belgrade
  • Assistant Professor (1992-1999), Associate Professor (1999-2005), Full Professor (2005-2015), Law School of the University of Belgrade
  • Editor-in-Chief of the Archives for Law and Social Sciences, 2003-2008
  • Coordinator of the Council of Europe for the compatibility of the Serbia and Montenegro law with the Revised European Social Charter, 2003-2005
  • President of the Serbian Association for Labour Law and Social Security, 2008-2011
  • Member of the Serbian High Civil Service Council, 2005-2010
  • Member of the Presidency of the Serbian Association of Jurists, 2011-2015
  • External collaborator/expert of the International Labour Organisation, 2002, 2013 and 2014
  • Member of the Scientific Committee Forum for the Regulation of a Social Europe, 2011
  • Member of the Republican Board for prevention of conflict of interest, 2005-2009
  • Member of the Board of Anticorruption Agency of Serbia, 2009-2013
  • President of the Board of Anticorruption Agency of Serbia, 2013-2015
  • Judge of the European Court of Human Rights since 13 April 2015.
Yonko Grozev Bulgaria Judge

Born on 27 December 1965, in Sofia, Bulgaria

  • Master of Law, Faculty of Law, University of Sofia, 1991
  • Lawyer, registered with the Sofia Bar Association, 1993
  • Development and implementation of a training program for Bulgarian judges on the application of the European Convention on Human Rights, Council of Europe, 1991-2001
  • Founding member, Bulgarian Helsinki Committee, Sofia, 1992-2013
  • Founding member of the Board, Centre for Liberal Strategies, Sofia, 1993-2013
  • LL.M. (Master of Law), Harvard Law School, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1995
  • Founding member of the Board, Access to Information Foundation, Sofia, 1996 and 2002
  • Member of the Legal Advisory Committee of the European Roma Rights Centre, 1998-2010
  • Member of the Board, Media Development Center, Sofia, 2000-2003
  • Member of the Board, Open Society Institute, Sofia, 2001-2004
  • Lecturer and trainer for extensive training meant for practising lawyers on the case law of the European Court of Human Rights, since 2001
  • Member of the Board, Mental Disability Advocacy Center, Budapest, 2002-2006
  • Head of a working group with the task of drafting a strategy for institutional reform aimed at improving the implementation of judgments of the European Court of Human Rights, Ministry of Justice of Bulgaria, 2007-2008
  • Member of a working group drafting the first legal aid legislation, 2009
  • Chair of the Board and founding member, Risk Monitor, Sofia, 2009-2015
  • Member of the Board, Bulgarian Lawyers for Human Rights, 2009-2013
  • Member of the Board, Open Society Justice Initiative, New York, 2011-2015
  • Development and implementation of a web-based training course for practising lawyers, Council of Europe, 2012-2013
  • Judge of the European Court of Human Rights since 13 April 2015.
Síofra O’Leary Ireland Judge

Born on 20 September 1968, in Dublin, Ireland

  • Bachelor of Civil Law, University College Dublin, 1986-1989
  • PhD on European law, European University Institute, Florence, Italy, 1989-1993
  • Lectures addressing practitioners, government agencies and academics on fundamental rights, EU law and European Court of Justice practice and procedure, 1992-2014
  • Visiting Fellow, Department of Public International Law, University of Cádiz, Spain, 1994-1995
  • Research Associate, Institute for Public Policy Research, London, 1994-1996
  • Assistant Director of the Centre for European Legal Studies, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom, 1995-1996
  • Fellow of Emmanuel College, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom, 1995-1996
  • Référendaire, Court of Justice of the European Communities, Luxembourg, 1996-1999
  • Visiting Fellow, Faculty of Law, University College Dublin, Ireland, 1999-2004
  • Référendaire and Chef de cabinet, Court of Justice of the European Communities, Luxembourg, 2000-2004
  • Visiting Professor, Department of Law, College of Europe, Bruges, Belgium, since 2003
  • Administrator, Research and Documentation Directorate, Court of Justice of the European Communities, Luxembourg, 2004-2005
  • Référendaire and Chef de cabinet, Court of Justice of the European Union, Luxembourg, 2005-2012
  • Member of the Editorial and Advisory Boards of the Common Market Law Review, since 2012 and 2015
  • Head of Unit, Research and Documentation Directorate, Court of Justice of the European Union, Luxembourg, 2012-2015
  • Judge of the European Court of Human Rights since 2 July 2015.
Roderick Liddell United Kingdom Registrar

Born on 16 March 1955, in Lingfield, United Kingdom

  • Law studies, Oxford University, United Kingdom, 1974-1977
  • Lawyer-linguist, Court of Justice of the European Communities, 1982-1987
  • Translator with the Council of Europe, 1987-1988 and the Registry of the European Court of Human Rights, 1988-1994
  • Assistant to the President of the Court, 1995-1998
  • Legal and Executive Assistant to the President on the establishment of the single Court, 1998-2000
  • Head of the Private Office of the President, 2000-2003
  • Head of External Relations and Communication of the Court, Deputy to the Registrar, 2003-2006
  • Section Registrar, 2006
  • Director of Common Services of the Court, 2006-2015
  • Deputy Registrar ad interim from 8 July to 30 November 2015
  • Registrar of the European Court of Human Rights since 1 December 2015.
Carlo Ranzoni Liechtenstein Judge
Born on 2 November 1965, in St. Gallen, Switzerland

  • Master of Law, University of St. Gallen, 1985-1989
  • Attorney’s license, bar exam in St. Gallen, 1992
  • Legal assistant, Court of Appeal, St. Gallen, 1992-2000
  • Judge, Court of Justice of the Principality of Liechtenstein, Vaduz, 2001-2015
  • Member of the Association of Jurists St. Gallen, since 1991
  • Member of the Liechtenstein Association of Judges, since 2001
  • Collaboration in numerous Liechtenstein working groups on legislative reforms, 2003-2015
  • Member (2003-2015), Head (2011-2015) of the Liechtenstein expert group against sexual abuse of children and juveniles
  • Member of the Swiss Association of Criminal Law, since 2004
  • Member of the Swiss Group of Criminology, since 2006
  • Liechtenstein representative at the Council of Europe Committees of experts PC-ES on the protection of children against sexual exploitation and abuse, 2006-2007, and CAHVIO on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence, 2009-2010
  • Member of the Liechtenstein delegations presenting national reports to the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child, 2006, and the UN Human Rights Council, 2008
  • Liechtenstein representative at the European Committee on Crime Problems of the Council of Europe (CDPC), 2007-2015
  • Liechtenstein Deputy Member at the Consultative Council of European Judges (CCJE), 2008-2015, and the Council of Europe Committee of the parties to the Lanzarote Convention (T-ES), 2013-2015
  • Judge of the European Court of Human Rights since 1 September 2015.
Mārtiņš Mits Latvia Judge
Born on 25 March 1972, in Riga, Latvia

  • Senior Adviser, Department of Case-law Analysis of the Latvian Supreme Court, 1993-1995
  • LL.B., qualification of a lawyer, University of Latvia, 1995
  • Deputy Director (1995-1998), Acting Director (1999-2001), Human Rights Institute, University of Latvia, Faculty of Law
  • LL.M. in Human Rights, University of Nottingham, United Kingdom, 1998
  • Chief Editor of the Latvian Human Rights Quarterly, 2000-2001
  • Lecturer (1999-2012), Docent (2012-2013), Associate Professor (since 2013); Prorector (2008-2015), Riga Graduate School of Law
  • Regular lecturer in the Latvian Judicial Training Centre and in training courses organised for judges of the Latvian Constitutional Court (2003-2004) and the Latvian Supreme Court (2003-2004, 2010)
  • Dr.iur (LL.D) in Public International Law, Lund University, Sweden, 2010
  • Member of the Constitutional Rights Committee of the President of the Republic of Latvia, 2007-2012
  • Alternate member representing Latvia in the Management Board of the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights, 2007-2012
  • Expert of the Latvian Council of Science, 2010-2012 and since 2014
  • Listed by the Latvian Government as ad hoc Judge of the European Court of Human Rights, 2012-2015
  • Judge of the European Court of Human Rights since 3 September 2015.
Armen Harutyunyan Armenia Judge
Born on 7 March 1964, in Yerevan, Armenia

  • Diploma in Law, Yerevan State University, Law Department, 1981-1986
  • PhD, Institute of State and Law of Academy of Science of the USSR, Moscow, 1986-1989
  • Assistant Professor, Associate Professor, Senior Professor, Yerevan State University, Law Department, Division of Constitutional and International Law, 1989-2002
  • Doctor of Law, Academy of Public Administration of Russian Federation, Moscow, 1996-1997
  • Member of the Commission on Constitutional reforms, 1997-2001
  • Legal Advisor, Constitutional Court of Armenia, 1997-2005
  • Representative of the President of the Republic of Armenia on Constitutional reforms, 2001-2005
  • Rector, Public Administration Academy of Armenia, 2002-2006
  • Deputy Representative of Armenia, European Commission for Democracy through Law (Venice Commission), 2002-2011
  • Member of the Council of Justice of Armenia, 2004-2005
  • President of the European Law Association of Armenia, 2004-2011
  • Human Rights Defender (Ombudsman) of Armenia, Human Rights Defender’s Institution of Armenia, 2006-2011
  • Member of the Board of European Ombudsman Institute (2008-2011), external member (2011-2015)
  • Graduated of the Human Rights Law Centre, School of Law, University of Nottingham, 2007
  • Member of the Armenian Bar Association of North America, Los Angeles, 2007-2011
  • Honorary Member of the French Association of Armenian Advocates and Lawyers (AFAJA), Paris, 2008-2011
  • Regional Representative, Regional Office for Central Asia of the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, 2011-2014
  • Head of the UN Human Rights Monitoring Mission in Ukraine, UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, 2014-2015
  • Member (external) of the Commission of Constitutional amendments of Ukraine, 2015
  • Judge of the European Court of Human Rights since 17 September 2015.
Stéphanie Mourou-Vikström Monaco Judge
Georges Ravarani Luxembourg Judge
Born on 1 May 1954, in Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg

  • Master’s degree in law, Grenoble University, France, 1977
  • Trainee lawyer, 1978-1980
  • Judge of the Luxembourg District Court, 1981-1992
  • Member of the Editorial Board of the quarterly law review Pasicrisie luxembourgeoise, since 1982
  • Founding member of the Luxembourg Human Rights Institute, Secretary of this foundation, 1982-2012
  • Lawyer, 1992-1996
  • President of the Luxembourg First Instance Administrative Court, 1997-2007
  • Member of the Grand Ducal Institute, since 2002
  • Guest lecturer (2006-2014), honorary lecturer (since 2015), Luxembourg University
  • President of the Association of the Councils of State and Supreme Administrative Jurisdictions of the European Union (ACA-Europe), 2008-2010
  • Vice-President of the Luxembourg Constitutional Court, 2008-2015
  • President of the Luxembourg Supreme Administrative Court, 2008-2015
  • Doctor of law, Luxembourg University, 2011
  • Judge of the European Court of Human Rights since 1 November 2015.
Gabriele Kucsko-Stadlmayer Austria Judge
Born on 19 December 1955, in Vienna, Austria

  • Law Studies, Law School, University of Vienna, 1973-1977
  • Doctor of Law, Law School, University of Vienna, 1977
  • Legal trainee in the District Court for Commercial Affaires and in the Regional Criminal Court, Vienna, 1980-1981
  • Habilitation for Constitutional and Administrative Law, University of Vienna, 1984
  • Associate Professor for Constitutional and Administrative Law, University of Vienna, 1985
  • Substitute Member of the Constitutional Court of Austria, 1995-2015
  • Visiting professor, University of Graz, 2000
  • Permanent Member of the Austrian Commission of Jurists, since 2000
  • Expert at the Austrian Constitutional Convention in the Austrian National Council, 2003-2005
  • Member of the Selection Committee for Civil Service Tribunal of the European Union, 2005-2009
  • Member of the Society of German Public Law Professors, since 2006
  • Chair of the Arbitration Commission, University of Vienna, 2006-2013
  • Substitute Member of the European Commission for Democracy through Law (Venice Commission), Council of Europe, 2006-2015
  • Vice-Chair of the Human Rights Advisory Board, Austrian Ministry of the Interior, 2008-2012
  • Vice-Chair of the Human Rights Advisory Board, Austrian Ombudsman Office, 2012-2013
  • Chair of the Independent Disciplinary Commission, Austrian Ministry of Science, Economy and Research, 2008-2015
  • Full Professor for Constitutional and Administrative Law, Law School, University of Vienna, since 2011
  • Chair (2013-2015) of Senate, Vice-Chair (2009-2011), University of Vienna
  • Spokesperson for the Senates of Austrian Universities, 2013-2015
  • Judge of the European Court of Human Rights since 1 November 2015.
Pere Pastor Vilanova Andorra Judge
Born on 29 November 1968, in Andorra la Vella, Principality of Andorra

  • Master’s Degree in Political Science, Toulouse Institute of Political Science, France, 1987-1990
  • Master’s Degree in Finance and Business Economics, Montpellier Business School, France, 1990-1992
  • Master’s Degree in Public Administration, National School of Administration, Paris, 1992-1994
  • Technical Director of the Interior Ministry, Andorra, 1995-1998
  • Judge of First Instance in charge of Administrative and Civil Litigation, Andorra, 1998-2011
  • PhD Public Law, University of Toulouse 1, 1999-2002
  • Member of the Bioethics Committee of the Council of Europe (DH-BIO), 2005-2015
  • Lecturer at the University of Andorra and the University Toulouse 1, since 2005
  • Judge of the Supreme Court of Andorra, 2011-2015
  • Judge of the European Court of Human Rights since 1 November 2015.
Françoise Elens-Passos Belgium Deputy Registrar
Born on 16 July 1953, in Junkersdorf, Germany

  • Law studies, Catholic University of Louvain, 1972-1977
  • Certificate of Studies and Diploma of Higher European Studies, Institute of Higher European Studies, Strasbourg, 1977-1981
  • Legal officer (1981-1990) and Principal Legal officer (1990-1991) in the Secretariat of the European Commission of Human Rights
  • Head of Division in the Registry of the European Court of Human Rights, 1998-2002
  • Deputy Section Registrar, 2002-2013
  • Section Registrar, 2013-2015
  • Deputy Registrar of the European Court of Human Rights since 1 December 2015.
Alena Poláčková Slovak Republic Judge
Born on 6 November 1964 in Bojnice, Slovak Republic

  • Law Studies at Comenius University, Bratislava, 1982-1987
  • JUDr, Faculty of law, Legal History, Comenius University, Bratislava, 1987-1988
  • Law teacher, Secondary Economic School, Bratislava, 1988-1991
  • Trainee Judge, Regional Court, Bratislava, 1991-1994
  • Judge, Ministry of Justice, 1993
  • Judge in Commercial Law, District Court, Bratislava, 1994-2002
  • PhD, Faculty of Law, Commercial Law, Comenius University, Bratislava, 1996-2001
  • Judge in civil law matters, District Court, Bratislava, 2002-2004
  • Judge in administrative law matters, Supreme Court, 2004
  • Agent of the Government before the European Court of Human Rights, 2005-2006
  • Member of the Committee of Experts on improving the process of the protection of human rights, 2005-2006
  • Judge in civil law matters, District Court, Bratislava, 2006-2007
  • Judge in administrative law matters, Supreme Court, 2007-2011
  • Member of the Consultative Council of European Judges (CCJE), 2010-2015
  • President of Panel, Administrative Law, Supreme Court, 2011-2015
  • Vice-President of the Slovak Association of Judges, 2012-2014
  • Member of the First-instance Chamber on the Slovak Bar exam, 2012-2015
  • Judge of the European Court of Human Rights since 29 December 2015.
Pauliine Koskelo Finland Judge
Born on 22 June 1956 in Salo, Finland

  • Master of Laws, University of Helsinki, 1979
  • Senior Officer in Legislative Affairs, Ministry of Justice, 1980-1984
  • Trained on the bench, Helsinki District Court, 1985
  • Senior Adviser in Legislative Affairs, Ministry of Justice, 1985-1995
  • Head of Division (1995-1997), Assistant General Counsel (1998-1999), Co-Director (1999-2000) of the European Investment Bank, Legal Directorate, Luxembourg
  • Member (2000-2015), President (2006-2015) of the Supreme Court of Finland
  • Member of the Board of the Finnish Law Association, 2001-2006
  • Member of the National Board of the Nordic Lawyers’ Conference, since 2005
  • Chairperson of the Judicial Appointments Board of Finland, 2006-2012
  • Chairperson of the Advisory Board of the Institute of European Economic Law, University of Helsinki, 2008-2011
  • Vice-President of the Network of the Presidents of the Supreme Judicial Courts of the European Union, 2008-2015
  • Dr. econ. h.c., Hanken University, School of Economics, Helsinki, 2009
  • Dr. jur. h.c., Faculty of Law, University of Helsinki, 2010
  • Dr. jur. h.c., Faculty of Law, University of Turku, 2015
  • Member of the Board of Trustees of the Academy of European Law (ERA), since 2008, President 2011-2016
  • Member of the Advisory Board of the Law Faculty, University of Helsinki, 2011-2015
  • Member of a committee set up by the Ministry of Justice of Finland for reforms in the justice system, 2012-2015
  • Member of the panel provided for by article 255 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, mandated to give an opinion on the suitability of candidates to perform the duties of judge or advocate general of the Court of Justice or the General Court, since 2014
  • Judge of the European Court of Human Rights since 1 January 2016.
Georgios Serghides Cyprus Judge

Juges of the Court since 1959

This list includes all national judges of the
Court since 1959, by countries, including the judges currently appointed.

List of judges of the Court since 1959

Ad hoc Judges

When the national judge does not sit in the case because of inability, withdrawal or exemption, an ad hoc judge is appointed by the President of the Court from a list submitted in advance by the government concerned.

List of ad hoc judges

Single Judges

Manifestly inadmissible applications are examined by a single judge formation.

List of Single Judges

Sections

Last updated: 18/04/2016

A Section is an administrative entity and a Chamber is a judicial formation of the Court within a given Section.
The Court has 5 Sections in which Chambers are formed. Each Section has a President, a Vice-President and a number of other judges.

Section I

President

Mirjana Lazarova Trajkovska

Vice-President

Ledi Bianku

Guido Raimondi
Kristina Pardalos
Linos-Alexandre Sicilianos
Paul Mahoney
Aleš Pejchal
Robert Spano
Armen Harutyunyan
Pauliine Koskelo

Section Registrar

Abel Campos

Deputy Section Registrar

André Wampach

Section II

President

Işıl Karakaş

Vice-President

Julia Laffranque

Nebojša Vučinić
Paul Lemmens
Valeriu Griţco
Ksenija Turković
Jon Fridrik Kjølbro
Stéphanie Mourou-Vikström
Georges Ravarani

Section Registrar

Stanley Naismith

Deputy Section Registrar

...

Section III

President

Luis López Guerra

Vice-President

Helena Jäderblom

Helen Keller
Johannes Silvis
Dmitry Dedov
Branko Lubarda
Pere Pastor Vilanova
Alena Poláčková
Georgios Serghides

Section Registrar

Stephen Phillips

Deputy Section Registrar

...

Section IV

President

András Sajó

Vice-President

Vincent A. De Gaetano

Boštjan Zupančič
Nona Tsotsoria
Paulo Pinto de Albuquerque
Krzysztof Wojtyczek
Egidijus Kūris
Iulia Antoanella Motoc
Gabriele Kucsko-Stadlmayer

Section Registrar

Marialena Tsirli

Deputy Section Registrar

Fatoş Aracı

Section V

President

Angelika Nußberger

Vice-President

Ganna Yudkivska

Khanlar Hajiyev
Erik Møse
André Potocki
Faris Vehabović
Yonko Grozev
Síofra O’Leary
Carlo Ranzoni
Mārtiņš Mits

Section Registrar

Claudia Westerdiek

Deputy Section Registrar

Milan Blasko

Filtering section

Registrar of the Filtering Section

Karen Reid

Deputies to the Registrar of the Filtering Section

Hasan Bakırcı
Sophie Piquet

Grand Chamber

Practice of the Grand Chamber Panel

This document describes the general practice followed by the Panel of the Grand Chamber when deciding on requests for referral in accordance with Article 43 of the Convention. It includes statistics, an explanation of Article 43 of the Convention and examples of case-law.

English

French

Italian (translation commissioned by the Italian Government)

Composition of the Grand Chamber

The Grand Chamber is made up of 17 judges: the Court’s President and Vice-Presidents, the Section Presidents and the national judge, together with other judges selected by drawing of lots.

More information about the Grand Chamber